Ice Storm

Pure liquid water is transformed to its solid state, ice, at a temperature of 32°F (0°C) when the pressure is at one atmosphere. Interestingly, the density of liquid water at the freezing point is 62.418 lb/ft3 (0.99984 g/cm3) but decreases to 57.23 lb/ft3 (0.9168 g/cm3) when that water organizes itself into crystalline ice at 32°F (0°C). This density difference is due the large open spaces within the crystal lattice of ice. The increased volume of the solid lattice causes pure water to expand by approximately 9% upon freezing, resulting in ruptured pipes or damaged engines when the process occurs in a closed vessel. Ice is one of a very few solid substances that is lower in density than the corresponding liquid state. Surface ice floating on a lake or pond helps to insulate the water below, reduces mixing, and can prevent the water body from freezing solid.

1 comment:

Lynn said...

This is a super photo....I tried to photograph the ice storm we had this winter but was not successful. I definitely am going to try in B&W on the next one.